All variations of this type of stove have been categorized into four groups. Four built accordingly to find out which one does the job the best – complete and clean burning all the way to the end.

All aluminum inside the 3rd and 4th stoves were melt (the melting point of aluminum is 660 °C).

Note that the central riser (possibly made of iron and copper alloy) for the 4th design got so hot that it was found to be partly melt afterwards (the melting point of copper is 1,085 °C and that of iron 1,538 °C):

Note also the 4th one lasted to the end with clean and complete burning for two hours in the snow – the winner with no smoke whatsoever till the end:

Videos of these stove made by others fitting the four categories:

(1) TLUD 1 – open top with no side/bottom holes. Note that a glass ring is placed outside the burning chamber which helps to pre-heat the air entering the top holes.

Another way to construct the stove

(2) TLUD 2 – narrow top with side holes for both the top and bottom portion of the burning chamber

(3) TLUD 3 – open top with Donut central riser tube

(4) TLUD 4 – narrow top with the central riser tube sealed at the top and holes drilled below the top

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